Power Purchase Agreement Ghana

Power Purchase Agreement in Ghana: Everything You Need to Know

The energy sector in Ghana is undergoing a transformation, with a growing demand for renewable energy sources and increased private sector participation. One key instrument driving this transformation is the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA), which has become an essential tool to encourage private investment in the country`s energy sector. In this article, we`ll take a closer look at what a PPA is, its importance in Ghana`s energy landscape, and how it benefits all stakeholders.

What is a Power Purchase Agreement?

A Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) is a legal contract between a power producer (often referred to as an independent power producer or IPP) and a buyer, usually a utility company or government agency. The contract sets out the terms and conditions of the power purchase, including the price, duration, and quantity of power supplied. PPAs are typically long-term agreements, often spanning 15-25 years, and provide a stable source of revenue for both parties.

Why are PPAs important in Ghana?

In Ghana, the government has been promoting private sector investment in the energy sector through various policy measures, including the enactment of the Renewable Energy Act, 2011 (Act 832). PPAs are used to encourage investment in the country`s power generation sector, particularly the renewable energy sub-sector. The government`s aim is to increase the country`s power generation capacity and diversify its energy mix, which has been heavily reliant on hydropower and thermal energy. Through PPAs, the government is able to attract private sector investors who are willing to invest in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and biomass.

How do PPAs benefit all stakeholders?

PPAs are a win-win for all parties involved. For the power producer, it provides a guaranteed market for the power generated, ensuring a steady flow of revenue over a long period. The buyer, usually a utility company or government agency, benefits from a reliable source of power at a fixed price, reducing the risks associated with volatile fuel prices. Customers benefit from a stable and affordable supply of electricity, which is essential for economic growth and development.

What are the key provisions of a PPA?

PPAs are complex contracts that contain several provisions. Some of the key provisions are discussed below:

– Price: This is a critical provision in the PPA as it determines the revenue stream for the power producer. The price is usually calculated based on a formula that takes into account factors such as the cost of equipment, financing costs, operating costs, and a reasonable return on investment.

– Capacity: This refers to the amount of power that the power producer is contracted to supply to the buyer. The capacity can be fixed, or it can vary depending on the availability of the renewable energy source (e.g. solar energy depends on sunlight availability).

– Duration: PPAs are long-term contracts, typically spanning 15-25 years. The longer the duration, the more appealing it is to investors as it provides a stable revenue stream over a long period.

– Force Majeure: This provision outlines the circumstances where either party may be excused from performance due to unforeseen events such as natural disasters, war, or government action.


PPAs have become a crucial instrument for encouraging private sector investment in Ghana`s energy sector, particularly in the renewable energy sub-sector. Through these agreements, the government is able to diversify the country`s energy mix and increase its power generation capacity, while providing a stable revenue stream for investors. Well-crafted PPAs can benefit all stakeholders, including the power producer, buyer, and customers, by providing a reliable and affordable source of electricity.

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